In 2050, virtually all cars will have electric motors. There are also major opportunities in the application of new (lighter) materials in smart, green and integrated transport (e.g. in vehicles and ships). Smart coatings and thin films fulfil an essential role in cutting back energy consumption. In the market for electric vehicles, the challenge lies in improving the driving range by means of better battery performance. That will require new electrodes, electrolytes and separators. A portion of the fuels that is difficult to replace (e.g. that used in air and maritime transport) will be filled in with biomass-based energy sources that require other conversion and separation processes.